Of all the 4 C’s, cut is the one most directly influenced by humans. The other three are dictated by nature. The cut or make of a diamond will dramatically influence its fire and sparkle, for it is the polisher’s skill that releases its beauty.
It is the cut that enables a diamond to make the best use of light.
1. When a diamond is cut to good proportions, light is reflected from one facet to another and then dispersed through the crown or the top of the stone.
2. If the cut of the diamond is too deep, some light escapes through the opposite side of the pavilion or bottom.
3. If the cut is too shallow, light escapes through the pavilion or bottom before it can be reflected.
Although the majority of gem diamonds appear to be colorless, others can contain increasing tinges of yellow or brown, some of which are referred to as champagne diamonds.
Rare stones of exceptional color, such as green, red, blue pink or amber are known as fancies.
Almost all diamonds contain minute traces of non-crystallized carbon or small non-diamond crystals. Most are not discernible to the naked eye and require magnification to become visible. Called inclusions, they are nature's finger print and make every diamond unique. However, the fewer there are, the rarer the stone will be.
As with all precious stones, the weight of a diamond is expressed in carats. The word carat originated in a natural unit of weight: the seeds of the carob tree. Diamonds were traditionally weighed against these seeds until the system was standardized and one carat was fixed at 0.2 grams (one fifth of a gram.)